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Volume 662, Page 6   View pdf image (33K)
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Cecilius, Lord Baltimore, a practical man, did not impose on
his little settlement an elaborate constitution. He chose instead
to let his patronage evolve and expand with the increase of popu-
lation, dividing offices whose duties became too numerous and
erecting new ones as need required. His earliest government was
extremely simple. It consisted merely of a Governor, Leonard
Calvert, and two " Commissioners, " Jerome Hawley and Captain
Thomas Cornwalleys. These went out to Maryland at the first
settlement, landing March 25, 1634. In November, 1637, arrived
John Lewger with a commission creating Calvert Governor and
Chancellor, Lewger himself Secretary, and Lewger, Hawley, and
Cornwalleys Councillors. Two months later the Governor began
to appoint sheriffs.

The executive mechanism, consisting of a Governor and the
sheriffs, was now substantially complete. Meanwhile the patron-
age grew up around the Governor by two processes: a progressive
division of the Secretary's office, and the erection of new offices
to meet special needs. After 1673 there were also a number of
royal customs places. Although outside the patronage of the pro-
vince these were under the Governor's supervision and were
commonly filled by Maryland residents.

The provincial Secretary had at first all functions not definitely
assignable to the Governor or the Chancellor. As Secretary he
was notary public and custodian of provincial records, and he
could appoint the clerks of his own office and of the provincial
and the county courts. These functions he retained, save for
loss of the custody of certain records, throughout colonial times.

His other duties were, however, gradually taken away. From
his office were detached the posts of Surveyor General (1641/2),
Agent and Receiver General (1651), Attorney General (1657),
Commissary General (1673), Naval Officer (1676), and Rent
Roll Keeper (1689). Under royal government, in 1705/6, the
secretariat was itself divided between a principal residing in
England and a deputy living in Maryland. Thereafter the deputy
took all fees and paid his principal a salary. The principal
acquired wider power and a larger revenue in 1751. Meanwhile
the deputy had assumed, soon after the restoration of 1715, an
additional style as Judge of the Land Office; but in 1738 this post


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Volume 662, Page 6   View pdf image (33K)
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