THE UNITED STATES. xxiii
No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a
grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces,
or in the militia when in actual service, in time of war or pub-
lic danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence
to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall be com-
pelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor
be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of
law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without
In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right
to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state
and district wherein the crime shall have been committed,
which district shall have been previously ascertained bylaw;
and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation;
to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; to have com-
pulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favour; and to
have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy
shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-
examined in any court of the United States, than according to
the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration in the constitution of certain rights shall
not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the
The powers not delegated to the United States by the consti-
tution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the
states respectively, or to the people.
The judicial power of the United States shall not be con-
strued to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or
prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of
another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.