THE DECLARATION OF RIGHTS,
6. That the legislative, executive and judicial
powers of government, ought
to be for ever separate and distinct from each other.
7. That no power of suspending laws, or the
execution of laws, unless by or
derived from the legislature, ought to be exercised or allowed.
8. That freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings,
in the legislature,
ought not to be impeached in any other court or judicature.
9. That a place for the meeting of the legislature
ought to be fixed, the most
convenient to the members thereof, and to the depository of the public
and the legislature ought not to be convened or held at any other place
10. That for the redress of grievances, and
for amending, strengthening and
preserving the laws, the legislature ought to be frequently convened.
11. That every man hath a right to petition
the legislature for the redress of
grievances, in a peaceable and orderly manner.
12. That no aid, charge, tax, burthen, fee
or fees, ought to be set, rated or
levied, under any pretence, without the consent of the legislature.
13. That the levying taxes by the poll is grievous
and oppressive, and ought
to be abolished; that paupers ought not to be assessed for the support
but every other person in the state ought to contribute his proportion
public taxes for the support of government according to his actual worth
or personal property within this state; yet fines, duties or taxes, may
and justly be imposed or laid with a political view for the good government
benefit of the community.
14. That sanguinary laws ought to be avoided,
as far as is consistent with
the safety of the state; and no law to inflict cruel and unusual pains
ought to be made, in any case, or at any time hereafter.
15. That retrospective laws, punishing facts
committed before the existence
of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are oppressive, unjust,
incompatible with liberty; wherefore no ex post facto law ought
to be made.
16. That no law to attaint particular persons
of treason or felony, ought to
be made in any case, or at any time hereafter.
17. That every free man, for any injury done
to him in his person or property,
ought to have remedy by the course of the law of the land, and ought
to have justice and right, freely without sale, fully without any denial,
speedily without delay, according to the law of the land.
18. That the trial of facts where they arise,
is one of the greatest securities
of the lives, liberties and estate of the people.
19. That in all criminal prosecutions, every
man hath a right to be informed
of the accusation against him, to have a copy of the indictment or charge
due time (if required) to prepare for his defence, to be allowed counsel,
confronted with the witnesses against him, to have process for his witnesses,
examine the witnesses for and against him on oath, and to a speedy trial
impartial jury, without whose unanimous consent he ought not to be found
20. That no man ought to be compelled to give
evidence against himself in
a court of common law, or in any other court, but in such cases as have
usually practised in this state, or may hereafter be directed by the legislature.