48 CONSTITUTION OF MARYLAND.
may have since expired, or may be inconsistent with the provisions of
this Constitution; subject, nevertheless, to the revision of, and amend-
ment or repeal by, the Legislature of this State. And the Inhabitants
of Maryland are also entitled to all property derived to them from or
under the Charter granted by His Majesty, Charles the First, to Caecilius
Calvert, Baron of Baltimore.
Art. 6. That all persons invested with the Legislative or Executive
powers of Government are Trustees of the Public, and as such, account-
able for their conduct: Wherefore, whenever the ends of Government
are perverted, and public liberty manifestly endangered, and all other
means of redress are ineffectual, the People may, and of right ought to
reform the old, or establish a new Government; the doctrine of non-
resistance against arbitrary power and oppression is absurd, slavish and
destructive of the good and happiness of mankind.
Art. 1. That the right of the People to participate in the Legisla-
ture is the best security of liberty and the foundation of all free Govern-
ment; for this purpose elections ought to be free and frequent, and every
* male citizen having the qualifications prescribed by the Constitu-
tion, ought to have the right of suffrage.
Art. 8. That the Legislative, Executive and Judicial powers of
Government ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other;
and no person exercising the functions of one of said Departments shall
assume or discharge the duties of any other
Art. 9. That no power of suspending Laws or the execution of
Laws, unless by, or derived from the Legislature, ought to be exercised,,
Art. 10. That freedom of speech and debate, or proceedings in the
Legislature, ought not to be impeached in any Court of Judicature.
Art. 11. That Annapolis be the place of meeting of the Legislature;
and the Legislature ought not to be convened, or held at any other place
but from evident necessity.
Art. 12. That for redress of grievances, and for amending, strength-
ening and for preserving the laws, the Legislature ought to be frequently
Art. 13. That every man hath a right to petition the Legislature-
for the redress of grievances in a peaceful and orderly manner.
Art. 14. That no aid, charge, tax, burthen or fees ought to be rated
or levied, under any pretence, without the consent of the Legislature.
Art. 15. That the levying of taxes by the poll is grievous and
oppressive, and ought to be prohibited; that paupers ought not to be
assessed for the support of the Government; but every person in the
State, or person holding property therein ought to contribute his propor-
tion of public taxes for the support of the Government, according to
*The word "white" omitted under the loth Amendment to the Constitution of
the United States.