DECLARATION OF EIGHTS. 49
his actual worth in real or personal property; yet fines, duties or taxes
may properly and justly be imposed, or laid with a political view for
the good government and benefit of the community.
Art. 16. That sanguinary Laws ought to be avoided as far as it is
consistent with the safety of the State; and no Law to inflict cruel and
unusual pains and penalties ought to be made in any case, or at any
Art. 17. That retrospective Laws, punishing acts committed before
the existence of such Laws, and by them only declared criminal are
oppressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; wherefore, no ex post
facto Law ought to be made; nor any retrospective oath or restriction
bo imposed or required.
Art. 18. That no law to attaint particular persons of treason or
felony, ought to be made in any case, or at any time, hereafter.
Art. 19. That every man, for any injury done to him in his person
or property ought to have remedy by the course of tho Law of the Land,
and ought to have justice and right, freely without sale, fully without
any denial, and speedily without delay, according to Law of the Land.
Art. 20. That the trial of facts, where they arise, is one of the
greatest securities of the lives, liberties and estate of the People.
Art. 21. That in all criminal prosecutions, every man hath a right
to be informed of the accusation against him; to have a copy of the
Indictment, or Charge in due time (if required) to prepare for his
defense; to be allowed counsel; to be confronted with the witnesses
against him; to have process for his witnesses; to examine the witnesses
for and against him on oath; and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury,
without whose unanimous consent he ought not to be found guilty.
Art. 22. That no man ought to bo compelled to give evidence against
himself in a criminal case.
Art. 23. That no man ought to be taken or imprisoned or disseized
of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any
manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by
the judgment of his peers, or by the Law of the Land.
Art. 24. That slavery shall not be re-established in this State; but
having been abolished, under the policy and authority of the United
States, compensation, in consideration thereof, is due from the United
Art. 25. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive
fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted by the Courts
Art. 20. That all warrants, without, oath or affirmation, to search
suspected places, or to seize any person or property, are grievous and
oppressive; and all general warrants to search suspected places, or to
apprehend suspected persons, without naming or describing the place,
or the person in special, are illegal, and ought not to be granted.