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CHAPTER II

THE MARYLAND PATRONAGE

WE MUST CONSTANTLY bear in mind that Maryland's colonial
history falls into three unequal periods: fifty-five years of pro-
prietary government (1634-89), a quarter century of royal ad-
ministration (1690-1715), and another sixty years of proprietary
rule (1716-76). Founded in 1634, partly as a Catholic refuge,
by its first proprietor, Cecilius Calvert, Lord Baltimore, Maryland
suffered an internal uprising in 1689, whereupon its government
was taken by the crown. In 1715, however, soon after death of
the second proprietor and succession of a Protestant heir, this
government was returned to the Calvert family.

During both proprietary periods officers were appointed by
Lord Baltimore or his representatives and held place at their
pleasure. All funds for support of government were proprietary
revenue and were received and disbursed by His Lordship's Agent
and Receiver. Under crown administration, on the other hand,
the proprietor had no authority over this government or the funds
for its support. He retained merely his personal income and the
patronage of those offices administering it. Appointment to all
other places passed to the crown. All funds for support of govern-
ment became crown revenue and so were handled by the Crown
Receivers.

This period of royal government was one of relative tranquility.
After important changes in 1689-96 the constitutional and finan-
cial evolution of the province virtually halted. In contrast the
proprietary periods saw a progressive unfolding of the admini-
strative system. Prior to 1689 this development, although on the
whole constructive, was interrupted by invasions, internal dis-
orders, and the vagaries of the proprietor. The latter period,
although disturbed by serious political quarrels, was generally
an age of progress. Constitutional development, if slower, was
also more constructive. It was marked by a growing complexity
in those establishments devoted to provincial finance, proprietary
revenues, and royal customs duties.


 

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